168.192.l.l Login Problem – Solution to Unable to Login Issues

In recent past, we have been getting lot of request for router IP login issues for 168.192.l.l. Our users ask a simple question that if they search for 168.192.l.l, then instead of opening the router page they get the Google result page.

The reason behind this happening is quite simple and easy to understand for a 5-year kid too.

We want to tell you, if you have question that 168.192.l.l is not working, you have entered wrong word and wrong characters too.

You should know that true IP is 192.168.1.1. Here you did two mistakes, one, you did not enter the correct IP and other is you have misplaced the blocks of B with A.

So, your browsers is nowhere going to understand that thing as router IP and it will definitely take to the Google search result page of 168.192.l.l.

So, next time keep in mind that thing and enter the correct url 192.168.1.1.

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Understanding the OSI 7 Layer Model

A full length explanation of the OSI 7 layer model including the role of each layer and of the stack.

The pdf file unavailable currently. Sorry.

In the late 1970s, one project was administered by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), while another was undertaken by the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee, or CCITT (the abbreviation is from the French version of the name). These two international standards bodies each developed a document that defined similar networking models.

In 1983, these two documents were merged to form a standard called The Basic Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection. The standard is usually referred to as the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model, the OSI Reference Model, or simply the OSI model. It was published in 1984 by both the ISO, as standard ISO 7498, and the renamed CCITT (now called the Telecommunications Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union or ITU-T) as standard X.200. (Source: Wikipedia)

This model defines how applications running upon network-aware devices may communicate with each other. The model is generic and applies to all network types, not just TCP/IP, and all media types, not just Ethernet. To read live application, check cricinfo page.

Note This article is in Adobe PDF format. To read it, you need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader. If you don’t have the reader, click here)

If you have any doubt for Understanding the OSI 7 Layer Model, then leave a comment below.

We will add more details for Understanding the OSI 7 Layer Model, on this page soon, stay tuned with us for more updates.

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How to Make Bootable CDs

Creating a CD-ROM that is bootable is easier than you think! Matt Jones explains how, in this practical guide from PC Support Advisor.

This is a plain html version of the original article. For the original version in PDF format complete with pictures.

There are many applications for bootable CD-ROMs (we’ll call them BCDs) – the most common being when undertaking large roll-outs and when using test rigs, where it is often useful to combine operating systems with boot and diagnostic diskettes to automate the process of setting up machines.

If you need to repeatedly test from clean installations it can save lots of time if you image a disk drive and put the image, along with the imaging software, on a BCD.

It can also be a timesaver to have frequently used boot and diagnostic diskettes on CD, and it’s an easy way to work with PCs that do not have a floppy disk drive.

To see if a PC supports booting from a CD, check your BIOS set-up screens. SCSI drives have their own BIOS on the adapter; IDE drives use code in the system BIOS. Most modern SCSI adapters have a BIOS that allows it, and most motherboards of the last two years support booting from IDE CD drives.

If you are able to change the boot options, and it lists “CD-ROM”, your system supports booting from a CD. If you have a 1995 or 1996 motherboard or SCSI card that does not support it, it’s probably worth contacting the manufacturer -many have BIOS upgrades available.

Technical Details

When a BCD is created, a “boot record” is put at the very beginning of the CD, just as it is with a bootable floppy or hard disk.

This record specifies whether the CD is to emulate a floppy or hard disk drive, and contains a pointer to the location of the actual boot image file.

The El Torito specification, created by IBM and Phoenix Technologies, was designed to be completely compatible with the ISO 9660 CD standard. It adds to the ISO 9660 specification by requiring a boot record at sector 11 of the last session on the CD.

The boot record contains an absolute sector number that points to the “boot catalog”. There’s no restriction on the location of the boot catalog. The catalog contains a list of entries describing all the “boot images” present on the CD. Again, there’s no restriction on where the boot images can be on the CD. There can be any number of them, of three different types:

  •  “Bootable emulation” causes the image to be mapped to drive A or C, as a conventional bootable storage device.
  •  “Non-bootable emulation” maps the image as a conventional storage device, and allocates the last drive letter to it.
  •  “No emulation” is a special mode which loads the image into memory and executes it -extremely useful when developing copy protection or “smart” CDs designed for a variety of disparate systems. For example, the “no emulation” mode is used in the Windows NT operating system CDs.

There is much scope for system vendors to create multi-image CDs where the boot image is selected dynamically by the system BIOS, but this requires a lot of manual assembling and editing, and is beyond the range of this article.

Although it is relatively easy to manually assemble the boot catalog, most BIOSes do not allow selection of the image and you will have to write a small amount of low level system code to do it. CDs can be set to boot as drive A or C. The fact that they are a late addition to the PC makes them subject to certain other restrictions.

To boot as drive A, the boot image must be made in the same format as a 1.2 MB, 1. 4 MB or 2. 88 MB floppy disk. The first floppy disk drive, if present, will become the B drive. If the system has a second floppy disk drive, it will not be accessible.

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Best Remote Access Software

As a technology writer, I’m a big user of remote access software. I wish I could tell you that using these products has been a pleasure and delight but the truth has been far different.

In the last eight years I’ve tried half a dozen different products and they all, in varying degrees, have been slow and flakey. Worse still I’ve always been worried about the security of these products.

Reliability though, has been the real killer.  With all the remote access software I’ve tried, I keep losing sessions and have to reconnect. Far too often the remote computer hangs and can’t be restarted without manual intervention. And who’s around at 2.00 a.m. to reboot the remote PC?

Well things have looked up.  I’ve actually found a remote access utility that works.  No, It’s not perfect but it’s the best remote access solution I’ve yet encountered.

How it works

Remote access software utilities such as PCAnywhere 11 require you to install a copy of the program on both the remote PC and also on the PC.

The software package is loaded onto the PC you want to access remotely. The web service is then used to access the remote PC from any other PC.

Initially, you connect to the web service. Once connected, the web server downloads a small program –  a “slim client.”  You then use the slim client to access the remote PC.

The advantages of the GoToMyPC web-based approach like paytm wallet page and paytm recharge coupons page.

Firstly you only need one copy of the software not two. This means you don’t have to actually buy two separate copies of the software as is required by most other products. It also means that you don’t have to set up the software on two or more machines – a major saving for tech support staff.

Secondly you can access the remote PC from pretty well any Windows PC. That’s because GoToMyPc downloads the “thin client” to the PC you are using. Hotstar live can can be any accessible PC whether it be at one  of your company’s offices, from a borrowed laptop,  a friends house or even an Internet Cafe.

Thirdly the system is intrinsically secure.  The connection is intrinsically 128 bit AES encrypted rather than user-settable. Furthermore the security does not have to watered down.  The  combined in-bound and our-bound nature of normal remote access firewall often presents such major problems that the firewall has to be bypassed.

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Rootkit Detection and Removal

Dealing with the threat of trojan rootkits

Rootkits are not themselves malware programs. Rather rootkits are programs that hide the presence of malware programs.

They do this using a variety of clever tricks to manipulate Windows itself, the effect of which is that you cannot see the malware product on your computer using normal Windows programs.

For example, you will not be able to see any of the malware files in Windows Explorer or any other common file viewer.

Nor will you be able to see any of the malware processes by using Task Manager or most other process viewers.

Similarly there will be no visible malware entries in the Windows Startup folder or other startup locations. Even a HijackThis log will show nothing.

In other words, the malware infection is totally stealthed from your view and the view of most of your security software products.

Because of this stealthing your security software may report that your PC is totally clean from infection when in fact you are infected.

In the past rootkits have been mostly used by hackers to hide trojans. Increasingly however there are being used to hide spyware or mass circulation viruses and worms. That’s bad news for users as they are far more likely to encounter these infections than hacker trojans .  

Detecting the presence of rootkits and the products they are stealthing is not easy  Certainly most anti-virus and anti-spyware scanners can’t detect them though a few are just now starting to add features to help with detection. What is needed is a specialist rootkit detector.

Rootkit Detection

If a uninfected copy of the test system is available as a reference rootkits can detected  by doing a file-by-file comparison while working from the uninfected copy. Here the infected system is treated just as data so the cloaking effect of the rootkit is not in play. In this situation, the rootkit and its payload can be easily discovered. The infected page can be checked at 192.168.1.1 or 192.168.l.l

However this is a situation that would be rarely encountered in practice as almost no one has a reference copy of their system. Quite separately, systems are not static anyway; legitimate changes are constantly taking place within a system and such changes make simple file comparisons difficult.

So in real-life rootkit detectors have to work from within the potentially infected system. Detecting rootkits in this situation is really tough but there are several different techniques that can potentially be employed and new ones are being developed. None however, are perfect.

To make matters worse,  rootkit developers are aware of these techniques and are constantly developing their products to evade new detection methods. In effect it’s become a cat-and-mouse game between the bad guys and the goodies.

What that means is there is currently no such thing as a perfect rootkit detector. The good news is that it also means there is probably no such thing as a perfect rootkit either.

This situation means that users should not lock into the idea that one particular rootkit detector is “the best.” Indeed I suggest you adopt the practice of using several detectors. You should also ensure that you regularly update your detectors as the current cat-and-mouse game means that products are constantly evolving.

Rootkit Detectors (RKDs)

There are over a dozen RKDs available but most are difficult to use or are targeted to detecting specific rootkits. The following four programs seem to be the best  for general use. I suggest you use all three.  Between them will detect the  majority of current rootkits. I have added a fifth program called IceSword but it’s really only suitable for experienced users.

These programs are all free and require Windows 2000 systems and later. They all require Administrator user rights to run.

I wish I could offer alternatives for Window 9x users but there are simply no comparable products available.

BlackLight from F-Secure

This is a free beta that’s F-Secure will incorporate into its commercial security products at a future date though they have pledged BlackLight will remain free until March 2006. The program is currently being updated around once a month by hotstarforpc.com.

F-Secure does not give much information how the program functions other than to say it “works by examining the system at a deep level. This enables BlackLight to detect objects that are hidden from the user and security software.”  BlackLight will detect hidden files, folders and processes but not hidden registry keys.

BlackLight is currently the easiest RKD to use. It requires no installation and it  scans very quickly – less than a minute on my test PC.

It also offers a removal option for any rootkits detected by renaming the files involved.  Before using this option I suggest you read the section on rootkit removal below. 

BlackLight requires Windows 2000 or later (32 bit only) and the download is 611KB.

RootkitRevealer from Sysinternals.

This free utility compares users mode information to kernel mode and reports differences that exist in the Windows Registry and file system .

Like BlackLight it requires no installation, just double click the .exe file. To start a scan select File/Scan. It took about 20 minutes to scan my test PC.

The program has an option to scan NTFS alternate data streams for hidden code. This option is normally off as it can generate a lot of false positives particularly for those who use products like Kaspersky AV V5 that legitimately store data in these data streams. Experienced users however may want to play with this setting.

RootkitRevealer will not remove rootkits. The authors suggest users conduct a Google search on how to remove any detected malware or re-format the drive and re-install Windows.

Malicious Software Removal Tool from Microsoft

This program is not a dedicated RKD but rather was designed to detect and remove several major virus and worm families. It does however have the capacity to detect the Hacker Defender rootkit and detection of other rootkits may be added at a future date. The program is updated monthly and distributed via the Microsoft and Windows Update services.

If you receive the program through the update service it will run automatically once it is installed.  You will only know that it has run if a malware product is detected on your PC

I can see the logic in this but personally I like to run the program more often That’s not a problem as Microsoft provide an online scan using the latest Removal Tool.

You can access the online scan here but note that you need Internet Explorer as the web page uses ActiveX controls.

The latest version of the program can also be downloaded from here.

Scanning took around one minute on my test PC. The only indication you get the program is working is the hard disk activity light but at the end of the scan you are presented with a list of malware that is scanned for and a statement for each whether they are present or not.

Rootkit Hook Analyzer

The folks over at Resplendence are currently offering Rootkit Hook Analyzer as a free beta of what will eventually become a commercial product.

As the name implies it identifies any active kernel hooks in your system. Now some kernel hooks may be established by legitimate programs so you need to be very careful interpreting the results. Also some rootkits don’t employ kernel
hooks so it won’t catch these. These reservations aside, it is a useful tool.

The program  runs on Windows XP, 2000 and 2003 Server with the exception of the 64 bit editions and the download is 993KB.

IceSword  (Suitable for experienced users only)

This free Chinese utility is arguably the biggest gun in the rootkit detection war.

It’s not really an automated rootkit detector in the manner of BlackLight but rather is a suite of tools that allow a skilled user to detect the presence of a rootkit.

These tools include a process viewer, a startup analyzer,  a port enumerator and more.  These tools will reveal the presence of rootkits and the products they are stealthing but it’s up to you to do the identification. In the hands of an skilled user, its an amazing tool.

The program was originally only documented in Chinese but an English version has now appeared.  The Chinese download site is very slow but David Wasson has provided a local mirror.   (565KB)

Removing Rootkits

Removing rootkits presents two quite separate problems. The first is the removal of the rootkit itself. The second is the removal of the malware that the rootkit was stealthing.

Because rootkits work by changing the Windows operating itself, it may not be possible to remove the rootkit without causing Windows to become unstable or non-functioning.

Removing the malware hidden by the rootkit presents the normal problems of removing any malware. However you won’t be able to do this until the rootkit is removed  at which point the whole system may become unstable to the point that the malware can not be completely removed.

Restoring your drive from a drive image is another possibility providing you are sure the image was created before the rootkit infection and that your imaging program restores the boot sector on your disk.

Avoiding Rootkit Infection

The rules to avoid rootkit infection are for the most part the same as avoiding any malware infection however there are some special considerations:

Because rootkits meddle with the operating system itself they require full Administrator rights to install. Hence infection can be avoided by running Windows from an account with lesser privileges.

This is however not always practical. I can’t operate my PC efficiently with less than Administrator rights and many folks will be in the same boat.

A more practical approach is to use security tools like Process Guard and Anti Hook that have the capacity to prevent programs from installing global hooks. Most (but not all) rootkits rely on establishing global hooks for their stealthing. If this can be prevented then the rootkit cannot function. And it’s not only a question of stopping hooks; both these programs have other features to prevent rootkits installing such as preventing process injection.

Process Guard is a $29.95 shareware product while Anti Hook is free.  Of the two I prefer Process Guard. It’s easier to use and provides a wider spectrum of defenses against attacks. However Anti Hook certainly has some impressive features and has the advantage of being free for personal use.

Not all users will need the level of protection afforded by these products but high risk users such as P2P users, users of cracked software and those who regularly download and install programs should regard them as mandatory.

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